Research reports published since 2000

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Date Ref Title Download
2014 DWI 70/2/249 Enhancing the value of molecular methods to the water industry: an E. coli case study

Executive Summary (PDF 649KB)
Full report available from WRF website

2011 DWI 70/2/224 Analytical methods for predicted disinfection by-products of probable toxicological significance Executive Summary(PDF 393KB)
Full report available from the WRF website
2010 DWI 70/2/206 Significance of Methods and Sample Volumes for E. coli and Total Coliform Measurements Executive Summary (1.28MB) For details of obtaining the full report, please visit the WRF website.
2010 DWI 70/2/205 Methods for measuring toxins in finished water Executive summary (745KB)
For details of obtaining the full report, please visit the WRF website.
2003 DWI 70/2/148 Exposure to Chloropropanols via Polyamines.  Project report and report on Objective 21: Development of methods of analysis for 3 Chloropropanol Isomers. Full report (7.8MB)
Brief summary (15KB)
2002 DWI 43/2/121 Review of test methods and criteria for assessing taste and off-taste. Full report (PDF 136KB) Executive summary (PDF 16KB)


Date Ref Title Download
2016 DWI 70/2/303 Technical definition of wholesomeness in relation to water used for toilet flushing in private water supplies

Full report (PDF 1.09MB)
Executive Summary (PDF 23KB)

2012 DWI 70/2/244 Impact of language and cognition on compliance during a natural disaster - and improving communication on Cryptosporidium and "Boil Water" notices Full report (PDF 49KB) produced March 2011
2012 DWI 70/2/251 A survey of tap water consumption patterns amongst children under 16 years of age Executive Summary (PDF 74KB)
Full report (PDF 1.62MB)
Diaries (PDF 2.23MB)
2010 DWI 70/2/207 Risk Communication Strategy and Tools : Guidelines for Communicating About Drinking Water Contaminants

Executive Summary (PDF 1.36MB)
(Visit WRF for full report)

2010 DWI 70/2/221 Good Practice for Communicating about Drinking Water Quality Full report (PDF1.3MB) Executive Summary (PDF 87KB)
2009 DWI 70/2/214 Further study on the potential for the release of nickel from kettle elements Full report (PDF 255KB). Also available on the Drinking Water Quality Regulator for Scotland's website
2009 DWI 70/2/227 Understanding customers' views – PR09 Quantitative Research into Customers' Priorities. Link to the Ofwat website for executive summary and full report
2008 DWI 70/2/227 Deliberative Research concerning consumers' priorities for PR09 for the water industry stakeholder steering group.

Link to the Ofwat website for executive summary and full report

2008 DWI 70/2/217 National tap water consumption survey for England and Wales
Full report (PDF 1.32MB) (A revised version of the report which includes some small changes in consumption values was uploaded on 19 July 2010)
Addendum (PDF 165KB)
Executive Summary (PDF188KB)
2001 DWI 43/2/121 Factors causing off-taste in waters, and methods and practices for the removal of off-taste and its causes. Full report (PDF 190KB) Executive summary (PDF 15KB)


Cryptosporidium & Giardia

Date Ref Title Download
2016 DWI 70/2/247 Cryptosporidium Genotyping Workshop and Round Robin Executive Summary (PDF 542KB)
Full report from WRF
2010 DWI 70/2/241 Investigation of the taxonomy and biology of the Cryptosporidium rabbit genotype Full Report (806 KB) Executive summary (58KB)
2008 DWI 70/2/143 International Collaborative Cell Culture and U/V studies

Executive summary(106KB)
Full report from UKWIR

2007 DWI 70/2/199 (851) Investigation of genetic variation within cryptosporidium hominis for epidemiological purposes Full report (786KB)
Executive summary (11KB)
2006 DWI 70/2/201    (849) Cryptosporidiosis:  A report on the surveillance and epidemiology of cryptosporidium infection in England and Wales Full report (2,028KB)
Summary (151KB)
2005 DWI 70/2/125 Investigation of cryptosporidium clinical isolates and analysis with epidermiological data Full report (2,164KB)
Summary (87KB)
2003 (827) A Case-control study of sporadic Cryptosporidium Hominis conducted in Wales and the North West region of England. Full report (1,052KB)
Executive Summary (14KB)
2003 DWI 70/2/106 North Cumbria sporadic cryptosporidiosis study Full report (3,613KB)
Executive Summary (125KB)
2003 DWI 70/2/167 Workshop on the application of genetic fingerprinting for the monitoring of Crytosporidium in humans, animals and the environment Workshop report (PDF 1.47MB)
Foreword (PDF 352 KB)
2003 DWI 70/2/154 Molecular fingerprinting of Cryptospodium oocysts isolated during regulatory monitoring Full report (376KB)
Executive summary 20KB)
2003 DWI 70/2/155 The enumeration of Giardia in drinking water Full report (569KB)
Executive summary (PDF 20KB)
2003 (B2003) Workshop on the application of genetic fingerprinting for the monitoring of Cryptosporidium in humans, animals and the environment Foreword (353KB)
For full proceedings, please visit the WRF website at
2002 DWI 70/2/125 The Development of a National Reference Collection for Oocysts of Cryptosporidium.

Full report (343KB)
Executive summary (50KB)

2001 DWI 70/2/129 Report on the Incidence of Cryptosporidium in Private Water Supplies. Full report (3,399KB)
Executive summary (20KB)
2001 DWI 70/2/120 Report on the determination of the correlation of the presence of Cryptosporidium in treated water with other water quality parameters Full report (3,734KB)
Executive summary(102KB)
2000 DWI 70/2/131 Advice on proceedings of the WSAA strategic workshop on viability tests and genetic typing of Cryptosporidium parvum Full report (38KB)
Executive summary (16KB)
2000 DWI 70/2/131 Review of Outbreaks of Cryptosporidiosis in Swimming Pools Full report (123KB)
Executive summary (13KB)


Date Ref Title Download
2011 DWI 70/2/245 Investigation of instances of low or negative pressures in UK drinking water systems Full report (PDF 4.3MB) Executive Summary (PDF 47KB)
2009 DWI 70/2/220 A review of research on pressure fluctuations in drinking water distribution systems and consideration and identification of potential risks of such events occurring in UK distribution systems Full report (265KB)
Executive Summary (46KB)

Monitoring - Chemical

Date Ref Title Download
2017 DWI 70/2/297 Formation of DBPs during Booster Chlorination Full report (PDF 6MB) Executive Summary(PDF 49KB)
2016 DWI 70/2/291 Identification of high risk sites for Iodinated DBP formation Full report (PDF 495KB)
Executive Summary (PDF 58KB)
2016 DWI 70/2/271 Measurement of ptaquiloside concentrations at a few of the most
vulnerable sources and final waters
Full report (PDF670KB)
Executive Summary (PDF 57KB)
2015 DWI 70/2/301 Understanding the implication of the EC’s proposals relating to Radon in drinking water for the UK Full report (PDF 2.42MB) Executive Summary (PDF 185KB)
2015 DWI 70/2/300 Effect of UV on the Chemical Composition of Water including DBP Formation Full report (PDF1.52MB) Summary (PDF82KB)
2014 DWI 70/2/276 Speciation of Manganese in Drinking Water Full report (PDF 2.51MB) Summary (PDF 20KB)
2013 DWI 70/2/268 Monitoring of nitrogenated DBPs in drinking water Full report (1.73 MB) Summary (26 KB)
2012 DWI 70/2/231 Targeted monitoring for human pharmaceuticals in vulnerable source and final waters Executive summary (PDF 77KB)
Full report (PDF 1.09MB)

2011 DWI 70/2/242 Evaluation of haloacetic acid concentrations in treated drinking water (Cranfield University) Full report (PDF6.28MB) Executive Summary (PDF 17KB)
2011 DWI 70/2/253 Evaluation of haloacetic acid concentrations in treated drinking water (WRc plc) Full report (PDF1.59MB) Executive Summary (PDF 28KB)
2009 DWI 70/2/218 Perchlorate – Risks to UK drinking water sources Full report (995KB)
Summary (36KB)
2009 DWI 70/2/194 Formation and occurrence of haloacetic acids (HAA) in drinking water Full report (PDF 287KB)
2008 DWI 70/2/212 Survey of the prevalence of perfluorooctane sulphonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and related compounds in drinking water and their sources Full report (735KB)
Executive summary (94KB)
2008 DWI 70/2/210 NDMA - Concentrations in drinking water and factors affecting its formation Full report (2,515KB)
2008 DWI 70/2/211 Molybdenum in British drinking water: a review of sources and occurance and a reconnaissance survey of concentrations Full report (948KB)
Summary (68KB)
2006 DWI 70/2/180  (847) Uranium occurrence and behaviour in British groundwater Full report (2,075KB)
Summary ( 37KB)

Monitoring - Microbiological

Date Ref Title Download
2013 DWI 70/2/234 Viruses in Raw and Partially treated water: targeted monitoring using latest methods

Full report (PDF 644KB)

Appendix A, B & C(PDF 483KB)

Summary (PDF 72KB)





DWI 70/2/146 (838,839, 833) Further analysis of the incidence of Mycobacterium Avium Complex (MAC) in drinking water supplies (including the detection of Helicobacter Pylori in water and biofilm samples) 2005 Full report (822KB)

2004 report (1,704KB)
Executive Summary (183KB)

2003 report (787KB)
2003 Executive summary (17KB)

2001 DWI 70/2/ 122 (815) Fate of Mycobaterium Avium Complex in drinking water treatment and distribution systems Full report (786KB)
Executive Summary(13KB)

Premise Risk

Date Ref Title Download
2018 DWI 70/2/277 Review of the latest evidence on lead and estimation of intake via drinking water Final report (PDF 4.47MB)
Executive Summary (PDF 82KB)
2017 DWI 70/2/282 Assessing the effect of water meter installation on exposure to lead in water Final report (PDF 2.82MB)
Executive Summary (PDF 99KB)
2016 DWI 70/2/307 A review of the risks to Drinking Water Quality at rural public buildings in England and Wales Final report (PDF 1.07MB)
Executive Summary (PDF 40KB)
2011 DWI 70/2/189 Water Safety in Buildings Freely available from the WHO website.
2011 DWI 70/2/260 Alternatives to phosphate for plumbosolvency control Executive summary (PDF 30KB)
Full report available from UKWIR website
2005 DWI 70/2/168 Updating Regulatory protection of water supply against contamination by backflow (Part A) and reviewing Regulators' specifications against EN standards (Part B) Main report (1,921KB)
Part A ( 96KB)
Part B( 295KB)
Clarification of Regulatory Requirements for point-of-use Protection against Contamination by Backflow (58 KB)
2003 DWI 70/2/178 Demonstration of optimisation of plumbosolvency treatment and control measures Full report (287KB)
Executive summary (12KB)
2002 DWI 70/2/150 (819) Review of the benefits and disbenefits for drinking water storage within premises. Full report (3,075KB)
Executive Summary (21KB)


Reg 31

Date Ref Title Download
2013 DWI 70/2/272 Potential Contaminants in Drinking Water Treatment Chemicals Full report (PDF 1.55MB) Summary (PDF 41KB)
2012 DWI 70/2/259 Potential optimisation and improvement of the Mean Dissolved Oxygen Difference (MDOD) test to assess the ability of non-metallic materials of construction to enhance microbial growth.

Full report (725KB) Summary (25KB)

2011 DWI 70/2/225 An investigation of leaching from flexible rising mains leading from borehole pumps Full report (PDF5.6MB) Executive Summary (PDF 45KB)
2010 DWI 70/2/209 Impacts of Lining Materials on Water Quality Executive Summary (PDF 1.73MB)
Full report available from the WRF website.
2007 DWI 70/2/91   (850) The long term migration of substances from In-Situ applied epoxy resin coatings Full report (247KB)
Executive Summary (28KB)
2005 DWI 70/2/172
European Acceptance Scheme - UK performance testing of EAS GCMS General Survey Test Full report (279 KB)
Executive summary (67KB)
2003 DWI 70/2/159 Reviews of national approvals for drinking water construction products (phase 1).  Audit of organisations appointed to certify activities of lining contractors. Full report (148KB)
Executive summary (13KB)
2002 DWI 70/2/151 Reliability of Test Methods for Metallic Products Full report (127KB)
Executive summary (13KB)
2001 DWI 70/2/88 (816) Exposure to Endocrine Distrupters via materials in contact with drinking water - Phase 2 Full report(PDF 432KB)
Executive summary (PDF 15KB)

Risk Assessment - Chemical

Date Ref Title Download
2018 DWI 70/2/317 Potential for Formation of Disinfection By-Products from Advanced Oxidation Processes Final report (PDF 2.52MB)
Executive Summary (PDF 129KB)
2016 DWI 70/2/302 Pesticide Risk Mappings and Catchment Interventions Executive summaries:
Phase 1 (PDF 191KB)
Phase 2 (PDF 184KB)
Full reports are available from UKWIR, and the QuickCalc Risk Calculator is free to download
2016 DWI 70/2/248 Fate of Non-Regulated Disinfection By-Products in Distribution Systems Executive Summary (PDF 604KB)
Full report from WRF
2016 DWI 70/2/296 Investigation of the potential formation of 2,4-D from Fluoranthene Full report (PDF 345KB)
2016 DWI 70/2/309 Brass fittings – a source of lead in drinking water? Stage two and Stage three

Summary report DW04/16 (PDF 226KB)
Summary report DW04/17 (PDF 227KB)
Summary report DW04/19 (PDF 211KB)

Final report available from UKWIR website

2015 DWI 70/2/275 Understanding the significance of chromium in drinking water

Full report (PDF 3.46MB)
Executive Summary (PDF 91KB)

2015 DWI 70/2/292 Volatile Organic Compounds - Understanding the Risks to Drinking Water

Full report (PDF 2.65MB)
Appendices (PDF 2.61MB)
Executive summary (PDF 127KB)

2015 DWI 70/2/281 National assessment of the risks to water supplies posed by low taste and odour threshold compounds

Full report (PDF 2.48MB)
Executive Summary
(PDF 24KB)


2014 DWI 70/2/283 Risks to drinking water from Personal Care Products and Domestic Cleaning Products Full report (PDF 1.35MB)
Executive summary (PDF 90KB)
2014 DWI 70/2/286 Assessing the likelihood of selected veterinary medicines reaching drinking water Full report (PDF 1.85MB)
Executive Summary (PDF 26KB)
2014 DWI 70/2/295 Toxicological evaluation for pharmaceuticals in drinking water Full report (PDF 1.07MB)
Executive summary (PDF 27KB)
2014 DWI 70/2/287 Brass fittings - A source of lead in drinking water Summary (PDF 258KB)
Final report available from UKWIR website
2013 DWI 70/2/273 Probabilistic modelling for assessment of exposure via drinking water Full report (PDF 2.3MB) Summary (PDF 146KB)
2013 DWI 70/2/274 Understanding the changes in pesticide usage to inform water company risk assessents Full report (PDF 1.71MB) Summary (PDF 61KB)Appendices(PDF 866KB)
2012 DWI 70/2/235 Desk-based study of current knowledge on Veterinary Medicines in drinking water and estimation of potential levels. Full report (PDF 1.65 MB) Summary (PDF 112 KB)
2012 DWI 70/2/239 Investigation into the potential formation and removal of nitrosamines in drinking water treatment Full report (PDF 1.1MB) Summary (PDF 83KB)
2012 DWI 70/2/246 Review of the risks posed to drinking water by man-made nanoparticles Executive summary (PDF 56KB)
Full report (PDF 1.27MB)
2012 DWI 70/2/266 A review of latest endocrine disrupting chemicals research implications for drinking water

Executive summary (PDF 151KB)
Full report (PDF 2.67MB)

2012 DWI 70/2/257 A review of skin irritation and tap water quality Executive summary (PDF 60KB)
Full report (PDF 2.64MB)
2010 DWI 70/2/238 Chlorine taste & odour contacts and chlorine levels or variability Full report (PDF 750 KB) Executive Summary (PDF 94KB)
2010 DWI 70/2/237 Ptaquiloside & other bracken toxins: A preliminary risk assessment. Full report (PDF1.77MB) Summary report (PDF 67KB)
2010 DWI 70/2/243

Review of the current toxicological and occurrence information available on nitrogen-containing disinfection by-products

( Also see the further monitoring study DWI 70/2/268 in the chemical monitoring section)

Full report (PDF 679KB)
Summary report (PDF 83KB)
2010 DWI 70/2/219 Brominated Flame Retardants - risks to UK drinking water sources Full report (1.57MB) Summary (35KB)
2010 DWI 70/2/230 A review of the current knowledge on dermal and inhalation toxicity of regulated trihalomethanes (THMs) Full report (PDF 1.12MB) Executive Summary (PDF 23KB)
2010 DWI 70/2/232 A desk study on pesticide metabolites, degradation and reaction products to inform the Inspectorate's position on monitoring requirements Full report (PDF 2.67MB) Executive Summary (PDF 20KB)
2009 DWI 70/2/233 Review of the current toxicological and occurrence information available on iodinated disinfection by-products Full report (960KB)
Summary (39KB)
2009 DWI 70/2/196 Calcium and Magnesium in Drinking Water: Public Health Significance (WHO) Visit the WHO website to view this report.
2008 DWI 70/2/203 A study into the possible association between step changes in water hardness and incidence of cardiovascular disease in the community

Full report (pdf 601KB)
Executive Summary (pdf 87KB)

2008 DWI 70/2/215 Review of England and Wales Monitoring Data for which a National or International standard has been set Full report (1,318 KB)
Executive Summary (141KB)
2008 DWI 70/2/226 Risk Assessment of BMAA Full report (212KB)
Summary (71KB)
2007 DWI 70/2/213

Desk based review of current knowledge on pharmaceuticals in drinking water and estimation of potential levels

(See also the further monitoring study DWI 70/2/231 in the chemical monitoring section)

Full report (1,608KB)
Executive Summary (25KB)
2007 DWI 70/2/161 Chlorination disinfection by-products and risk of congenital anomalies in England and Wales Full report (2,755KB)
Abstract ( 85KB)
2005 DWI 70/2/176 Review of evidence for relationship between incidence of cardiovascular disease and water hardness Full report (1,440KB)
2005 DWI 70/2/169 Study of the feasibility of investigating any potential relationship between the supply of discoloured water and gastrointestinal illness Full report (956KB)
Executive Summary (16KB)
2002 DWI 70/2/135 (822) Asbestos Cement drinking water pipes and possible health risks Full report (40KB)
Executive Summary (12KB)
2000 DWI 70/2/123 (813) Aspects of exposure estimates of disinfection by-products from Water: A review of water intake and contact and the uptake of disinfection by-products by different exposure routes.

Full report (292KB )
Executive Summary (14KB)


Risk Assessment - Microbiological

Date Ref Title Download
2017 DWI 70/2/280 Demonstration of the Health Canada Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment Tool for Two Drinking Water Plants in the United Kingdom Executive Summary (PDF 110KB)
Full report (PDF 2.64MB)
2017 DWI 70/2/306 Comparison of Private Water Supply and Public Water Supply Ultraviolet (UV) Systems Final report (PDF 1.07MB) Executive Summary (PDF (108KB)
2015 DWI 70/2/261 Effective Microbial Control Strategies for Main Breaks and Depressurization Executive summary (PDF 586KB)
2015 DWI 70/2/223 Free-Living Protozoa and Opportunistic Pathogens in Distributed Water

Executive Summary (PDF 684KB)

For details of obtaining the full report, please visit the WRF website
2015 DWI 70/2/256 Risk Assessment of VTEC infections in English and Welsh drinking water Final report (PDF 1.25MB)
Executive Summary (PDF 144KB)
2013 DWI 70/2/264 Health-based targets for drinking water safety and regulation Final report (PDF 193KB)
2012 DWI 70/2/279 Workshop on Validating the cause of coliform failures in drinking water Summary report of workshop (PDF 25KB)
2009 DWI 70/2/229 Validating the cause of coliforms in drinking water Executive summary (PDF 94KB)
Full report from UKWIR.
2011 DWI 70/2/255 A review of fungi in drinking water and the implications for human health Full report (PDF1.25MB) Executive Summary (PDF 363KB)
2010 DWI 70/2/187 Contaminant Candidate List (CCL) Viruses: Evaluation of disinfection efficacy Executive summary (PDF 20KB) Full report available from the WRF website.
2008 DWI 70/2/165 Characterisation of waterborne Aeromonas species for their virulence potential Executive summary (82KB)
For details of obtaining the full report, please visit the WRF website (formally Awwarf)
2007 DWI 70/2/204 Clean Water, What is acceptable microbial risk  A report from the American Academy of Microbiology  (DWI part sponsored) Full report available on the American Society for Microbiology website
2005 DWI 70/2/156 A case control study investigating drinking Water & dairy products in the aetiology of Crohn's Disease - A possible role forMycobacterium avium paratuberculosis Full report (7,864KB)

Other reports

Date Ref Title Download
2016 DWI 70/2/308 Evaluation of the drinking water quality and health evidence programme Final report (PDF 839KB) Executive Summary (PDF 105KB)
2016 DWI 70/2/254 Optimising Sustainability, Performance and Public Health Protection in the Design and Operational Life Cycle of Sports and Leisure Pool Complexes

Executive Summary (PDF 538KB)

Full report from University of Surrey

2015 DWI 70/2/258 A review of incidence of outbreaks of disease associated with private water supplies from 1970 to 2009 Final report (PDF 467KB)
2014 DWI 70/2/262 Identifying meaningful opportunities for drinking water health risk reductions in the US Executive Summary (PDF 647KB)
Full report from WRF website.
2014 DWI 70/2/285 A critical appraisal of existing guidance on online monitor performance data Final report (PDF 2.34MB)
Executive summary (PDF 39KB)
2013 DWI 70/2/284 An analysis of water company raw water monitoring data for 2009-2011 Evid 4 report (PDF 52KB)
2012 DWI 70/2/269 Quantifying the benefits of water quality catchment management initiatives

Executive summary (PDF 162KB)
Full report available from UKWIR

2012 DWI 70/2/263 Health impacts from extreme events water shortages Executive summary (PDF 131KB)
Full report (PDF 983KB)
2011 DWI 70/2/208 WRF 4006 Critical assessment of implementing desalination technology Executive Summary (PDF 24KB)
Full report from WRF website.
2009 DWI 70/2/228 Water Safety Plan Manual. Step-by-step risk management for drinking water suppliers. Visit the WHO website to view full report
2008 DWI 70/2/192 Review of water treatment methodologies for removal of radionuclides from drinking water Full report (528KB)
Supporting scientific report (384KB)
2008 DWI 70/2/216 A review of different national approaches to the regulation of THMs in drinking water Full report (387KB)
Executive summary (100KB)
2008 DWI 43/2/205 Requirements for the radiological monitoring of drinking water: Guidance provided to the Drinking Water Inspectorate Full report (PDF 272KB)
2007 DWI 70/2/186 An Assessment of the impact of regulatory models on drinking water quality Executive summary (30KB)
Full Report ( 5.3MB)
2006 DWI 70/2/188 (848) Evaluation of the Drinking Water Quality and Health research programme (1996-2004) Full report (200KB)
Executive summary ( 32KB)
2005 DWI 70/2/182 Assessment of the Costs and Benefits arising from Government and water industry participation in the development of European Standards Full report (535KB)
2004 DWI 70/2/164 (835) Quality of drinking water in public buildings Full report (357KB)
Executive Summary (17KB)
2003 DWI 70/2/147 (826) Assessment of the effects of jug water filters on the quality of public water supplies Full report (440KB)
Executive summary (85KB)
2002 DWI 70/2/145 (818 ) Future regulatory parameters - Implications for the UK Full report (1,396KB)
2001 DWI 70/2/137 (814) Manual on treatment for small water supply systems Full report (PDF 1.09MB)
Updated report 2015 (PDF 3.16MB)

Page reviewed: 6 August 2018
Page modified: 6 August 2018

Drinking Water Inspectorate